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The following text was delivered to a gathering at the Mennonite Church USA Convention in Orlando on July 5, 2017. A hard copy of this text may be downloaded at this link.

 

The goal of this presentation is to provide a description and definition of Christian formation that reflects an Anabaptist perspective. Corresponding to common usage, the term “spiritual formation” is used here synonymously with “Christian formation.” In addition, and in accord with common usage, “spiritual formation” is the primary term used, until conclusions are drawn at the end of the presentation.

There is a compelling need for the treatment of this topic. Models deriving from two streams dominate literature on spiritual formation emanating from authors identifying with the Western Church. One stream is medieval pietism, which focuses on the believer’s relationship with God. Examples found in this stream include the works of Roman Catholic moral theologians as well as the writings of Richard Foster, Dallas Willard, and A.W. Tozer. The other stream is Reformed theology, which focuses on one’s behavior toward God. Flowing within this stream are writings from Calvinist authors like J. I. Packer and John Piper. However, this stream also includes works by authors who retain the “two-step” paradigm introduced by John Wesley. This approach to spiritual formation stems from the teaching of Lewis Sperry Chafer, founder of Dallas Theological Seminary, and has been propagated by his students with dogged effort. This presentation proposes that spiritual formation from an Anabaptist perspective is not so much a third stream, but a coherent theological and historical bridge between the two prevalent streams of thought. In other words, it provides a more than satisfactory option for one to consider.

The presentation proceeds along the following path: First, following a brief recitation of Anabaptism’s origin and significance, the author explains what he means by an Anabaptist Perspective. Second, from a position within that perspective, the author gives the features of an Anabaptist model of spiritual formation. In so doing, it will be necessary to consider the topic of discipleship, and the place of disciplines in this scheme. Finally, the author will propose a definition of spiritual formation based on the contributions coming from an Anabaptist model of spiritual formation.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF ANABAPTISM’S ORIGIN AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE

Contemporary Anabaptists trace their origin to the 16th century Reformation movement distinguished by its insistence on believer’s baptism, hence the moniker Anabaptists or re-baptizers. In addition, these reformers advocated a radical imitation of the life and teaching of Jesus as recorded in the Gospels, with special attention given to the Sermon on the Mount. They based this conclusion on the conviction that Jesus had inaugurated the promised messianic kingdom during his earthly ministry, crucifixion, resurrection, and session.

The Anabaptist insistence on a “believer’s church,” though, put its adherents in direct conflict, not only with Roman Catholics, but also with Protestants, both Lutheran and Reformed. This conflict, in turn, boiled over into opposition from these three groups’ governmental protectors, with whom, in practice, they were effectively merged.[1] When this opposition came to a head in the form of persecution, Anabaptists’ radical adherence to the teaching and example of Jesus prohibited them from active resistance, resulting in widespread deaths.[2]

This brief account of the origin of the Anabaptist movement reveals in seed-form the two most apparent ways in which the practices of its members differ from that of members of contemporary Protestant faith traditions: Anabaptists maintain that the New Testament requires of disciples a level of commitment to Christ’s Kingdom mandating (1) strict separation of church and state and (2) non-resistance or pacifism.

Contemporary Anabaptists are represented primarily by Mennonites and by most groups with the word Brethren in their name.[3] However, their influence can be seen among Baptists and most free-church groups.[4] Evidence for this influence exists not only in the widespread practice of believer’s baptism and in various expressions of the separation of church and state, but also in the adherence to Anabaptism’s teaching on the symbolic nature of the ordinances and the visible nature and autonomy of the local church.

AN ANABAPTIST PERSPECTIVE

The preceding account identified two Anabaptist distinctives: separation of church and state, and pacifism. These, and other, distinctives arise from a particular theological perspective.

The perspective, or story, an interpreter inhabits and, therefore, from which the interpreter reads a text profoundly influences one’s interpretation.[5] Put another way, (more…)

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Christian Vocation is

the  birth           and      growth
     creation        and      formation
     initiation      and      development

of the story of a disciple and kingdom citizen subject to the Lord Jesus Christ,

within the story of  the people of God,
within the story of  the messianic kingdom of the Son of God,
within the story of  the triune God—creator, redeemer, and reconciler

by means of
     being           and      doing
     knowing         and      living
     relating        and      obeying
     communing       and      resembling

that reflects exclusive allegiance to the Lord Jesus Christ

animated through the power of the promised Spirit of God.

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NECESSARY ELEMENTS TO A DEFINITION

Divine Focus
Divine Plan—The Gospel

  • Restoration of Edenic Shalōm
  • By means of establishing the Son’s Reign
  • Through His incarnation, life, teaching, death, resurrection, ascension, and session as Lord and Christ the King
  • Resulting in reconciliation
  • Marked by forgiveness, freedom from sin and death, and the power of the Spirit

Divine GoalRelationship and Resemblance
Two sides of the same coin: the means to and evidence of each other

  • Relationship: Communion
  • Resemblance: Godness, Christlikeness, holiness, obedience

Moral Character – Matt 22:36-40, Summary: Love God and love people
Virtues—the inner life or being: affections, attitudes, thoughts, and motives

Ethics—the outer life or behavior: decisions and consequent words and actions

  • Affecting God, including His creation (Gen 1:28; Rom 8:19-22)
  • Affecting People: Both friends and enemies
    • Relationships with individuals
    • Relationships with social groups, both near and far: family, church, neighborhood, community, region
    • Relationships with power structures, both near and far: economic, political, military

Human Responsibility

  • Active, ongoing, obedient faith, including repentance, in God on the basis of the Gospel
  • Nourished by spiritual disciplines, including suffering and life in community
  • In which one progressively creates a new story through mentoring relationships that include encouragement and warning

These elements give rise to possible . . .

ALTERNATIVE NAMES

Christian Formation, cf. its Moral Character
Christian Vocation, cf. its Divine Focus
(M-Webster, “vocation”: a divine call to the religious life)

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